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Early Vintage Computer Buses Have Their Influences On Your Computer Today by Art Fellon October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Computers.
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The term “expansion bus “is a frequent term in vintage computer terminology which requires elaboration. Much of the legacy of vintage bus systems are in our current computer systems today.

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To begin with the “expansion bus” is a data highway for computer data information to travel on: the bandwidth is in essence the number of lanes. The bigger the bandwidth the more data can be sent. As examples, an 8 megabyte bandwidth means that data can be sent in 8 bits chunks. Our current systems use between 32 bit and now 64 bit bandwidth.

An expansion bus is where cards connect to the computer; Cards have an expansion edge, which fits snugly into the bus much like an electrical plug fits into a wall socket.

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 When cards are plugged into the bus, they communicate with the system, sometimes through the BIOS and others not. (The BIOS is the basic input /output system that tells the computer how to move data from the different components.) The 8, 16 or 32 bit bandwidth is an important consideration due to communication time between the cards. For example you have a 16 bit vintage 286 PC and it is sending out data at 16 bits a: your video card is also 8 bits. If you have an older 8 bit bus, such as in early IBM PCs and clones, the bus will become a bottleneck in the system; it is like having a 4 lane highway connected to another 4 lane highway by way of a 1 lane road. At most times regardless of the faster 4 lane highway traffic will be slow – limited by the single lane connection road.

There were basically 3 types of expansion bus available in vintage computers: ISA, MCA, EISA systems.

Each early development in major ways paved the way for the later systems which indeed we take for granted today. This was both in terms of hardware and basic concepts in our computer systems and technology as well as computer marketing that we take for granted today as simple basic facts of life without any consideration due.

Basically the newer buses offered increased performance over the older technology buses.

The basic explanations of the buses are as follows:

The 3 bus standards to note were Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) .Micro Channel Channel Architecture (MSA) and Extended Industry Standard (EISA) bus systems.

Industry Standard Architecture (ISA). This was the original AT bus also called an ISA bus. It was the original 8 bit IBM PC bus which was bumped up to 16 bits at some point in its later development. Fine for a 16 bit 286 or very early 386 computers

Micro Channel Architecture (MSA). This was an early 32 bit bus system which was not received well but set the stage for an industry consortium of the major non IBM computer manufacturers ( at the time referred to as “The Group of Nine) to develop the EISA standard bus.

Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA). The EISA bus standard was a standard of its own right which was 32 bit, included bus mastering and importantly remained compatible with previous older expansion cards. 32 bit systems were first to incorporate in later 386 systems. The 486 line solidified and standardized the 32 bit systems in the established software of the day.

Backward compatibility at the time was a novel new concept which has remained an important consideration in the computer industry.

EISA slots would accommodate both the ISA and EISA expansion slots to allow hardware upgrades, However the EISA expansion boards would be of little advantage and would seldom work in the older ISA expansion slots.

On the other hand the Micro Channel setup was not backward compatible. On the one hand the Micro Channel developers were free to initiate new radical changes in computer development and hardware which would have allowed for major new useful features in computer software. However owners of previous systems would have been left with then obsolete vintage useless hardware which would have been of no use and certainly little financial value.

Hence there was a lot of resistance to the Micro Channel bus setup.

It died a lingering death with its legacy living on in the aspirations of features offered in future developments and standards.

Thus the die was set for future hardware standards and software function as well as standard computer marketing concepts that we take for granted like mother’s milk today.

About the Author

Arthur Z. Felon Vintage Computer Historian Vintage Computer Manuals http://www.badgerlinux.net http://www.vintagecomputermanuals.com

Being Your Own Boss by Shannon Columbo October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Careers.
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If you are looking for a new job, you might be considering self-employment. This is a growing option in the past decade. Companies are much more willing to hire outside consultants and advisors, because it is often easier for them than having you on their payroll. Before you launch yourself into a new business venture, there are a few things to consider.

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 The major difference between being self-employed and working for someone else is the paycheck factor. When you are employed by a company, you are guaranteed a paycheck; when you are self-employed, your payments might be more sporadic. Just as you might have a dry spell in your business, when you are employed by a company, you might also run the risk of being downsized or laid-off.

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Being self-employed takes strategy. You need to come up with a business plan, and then find out ways to finance that business plan. The initial start-up cost might be prohibitive to many people, but there is always the possibility of getting a bank loan for your new business. The danger with this bank loan is that you are personally responsible for paying the money back, and so if the business flops, you will still have to pay the bank back.

Working for a boss, however, might not be challenging enough for you. You might have plans for how to improve the business in many ways, and these ideas are never respected. Conversely, you might have a great idea, but then that idea becomes no longer yours when the company takes the credit and the copyright. Working for yourself might be easier for an independent thinker or problem-solver.

Beginning a business of your own not only takes start-up cash and a business strategy, it also requires a major time commitment. You will probably find yourself working much more than the normal forty hour work week as you begin your job. Later, however, you will be able to plan your own vacation time and take the occasional four-day weekend if you have the time or money available for this.

Where do the benefits come from when you are self-employed? I don’t just mean positives; I mean benefits as in dental and medical. When you work for an employer, you have benefits from the company. When you are self-employed, you don’t have benefits. It is strongly encouraged that you find an insurance company to provide for the what-if scenarios. You can often find a plan that suits your needs better (at a higher price, sometimes) when you are shopping for individual benefits.

Just as you would need to find your own benefits if you were self-employed, you would also need to provide your own insurance. People who work for themselves should consider getting insurance for more areas than you might need if you were employed at a company. When you are self-employed you don’t give money from your paycheck to Employment Insurance, and so you can never collect Employment Insurance. Consider hospitalization insurance and other forms of insurance if you are planning on becoming self-employed.

It can be hard for expectant mothers to be self-employed. Being self-employed means that you don’t have maternity leave pay, and so women often work during pregnancy. With no means of paying for a newborn infant, more than half of self-employed women resume work within a month of the baby’s birth, compared to only 16% of salaried employees. In Quebec, a new program has started where all self-employed people contribute to a maternity leave fund, and they can then go on maternity leave. Discover your local maternity rules for self-employment to see what possible benefits you could have. If you are not planning on having kids, perhaps you would prefer to live someplace without extra taxation on the money you have worked so hard to earn.

If you do have kids, being self-employed allows you to make your own schedule. This way, you can more easily co-ordinate with your children’s schedule, and you would rarely find yourself missing important events (like that recorder concert at the Christmas assembly). Unfortunately, however, you need to consider your children with respect to your health care benefits. As children are often covered on their parents’ plans, if you are self-employed, you should be sure to get a benefit plan that suits your needs if you are a parent.

Working for yourself and working for a company each have pros and cons. Regardless of how you choose to work, knowing your benefits, insurance, and scheduling can help you maximize your job satisfaction.

About the Author

If you are going out on the job market, make sure that you have the best resume possible with The Guide to Resumes. Find out how to perfect your resume and give prospective employers what they want so you can get your dream job.

Investing In China: Proposed Labor Contract Law by David Carnes October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Business.
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cIf you are considering setting up a company in the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC”) you should be aware that Chinese law is more protective of employees than the laws of many western nations, particularly the United States. The current PRC Labor Law was enacted in 1994; however, a new PRC Labor Contract Law, intended to supplement the Labor Law, is expected to come into force at the end of 2006. This new law contains both bad news and good news from the point of view of the foreign investor; however, in general it further strengthens the protection of employees.

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The Bad News:

Severance Pay

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Because it is difficult under the PRC Labor Law to terminate open-term labor contracts, employers usually prefer fixed terms. The Labor Contract Law will address this issue by requiring employers to pay severance compensation to employees on fixed term labor contracts if these contracts are not renewed at the end of the contract term. The proposed compensation is at least one month’s salary for each year of service.

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Company Rules/Employee Handbooks

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No provision in the employee handbook or other rules affecting the employee’s “personal interest” may be put into force absent consultation with the labor union or other employee representative body (under Chinese law, virtually all employees are required to be unionized).

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A Shorter Probationary Period

Currently, the probationary period may be agreed between the employer and employee in the labor contract, but the maximum probation may not exceed 6 months. The Labor Contract Law shortens this period to one month for non-technical work and two months for most technical work (the six-month maximum is still retained for “senior technical work”, probably because these highly skilled employees are seen as less vulnerable in the employment market. This is significant because it easier to fire an employee during the probationary period than afterwards.

Non-Competition Clauses

Foreign invested companies in particular have tended to insert post-employment non-competition clauses into labor contracts in order to protect their intellectual property rights in China’s “wild west” business atmosphere. Although the Labor Contract Law allows post-employment non-competition restrictions, it will limit their enforceability to two years and restrict the geographical area of applicability to areas where actual competition is likely to occur. In this respect the reform will render Chinese law more similar to US law, since the current Labor Law does not impose any geographic restrictions at all (but does permits a maximum duration of up to three years). The Labor Contract Law goes even further, however, by requiring the employer “buy” a non-competition clause by paying a minimum compensation equal to the employee’s annual salary upon termination of the labor contract. It is still unclear what, if any compensation will be due the employee if the period of restriction is less than a year.

Contract Interpretation

Any ambiguous term in a labor contract will be construed in favor of the employee. This rule does little more that codify what has long been the prevailing practice in PRC courts.

Representative Offices

The current Labor Law requires Representative Offices to go through designated agencies such as FESCO (similar to Manpower in the United States) in order to hire employees. The new Labor Contract Law offers Representative Offices greater flexibility by allowing them to directly contract with employees for their first year of employment.

In summary, the new Labor Law will restrict foreign investor’s flexibility and make it more expensive for them to operate. The only good news is that Representative Offices will find it somewhat easier to operate. Typically, the new Labor Contract Law does not bother to define terms like “technical”, “senior technical”; and “personal interest” However, foreign investors have long been used to waiting months and even years for ambiguous terms in Chinese law to be defined through the further issuance of “implementing regulations” to supplement the main law; meanwhile the government’s actual implementation of the law in particular cases will be closely watched.

About the Author

David A. Carnes is a California attorney currently working as a legal advisor for California Industrial City (Zhengzhou) Development Co., Ltd. in Zhengzhou, China. His website is Start a Company in China.

Vidas desperdiciadas. La modernidad y sus parias – Zygmunt Bauman by Gabriel Castro October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Book Reviews.
9 comments

“Vidas desperdiciadas, la modernidad y sus parias”, de Zygmunt Bauman, es un muy buen libro, un poco complicado de leer, ya que tiene mucho fundamento de índole filosófico, pero muy bueno al fin. Se trata de un planteamiento sobre la globalización, el capitalismo y la modernidad, y qué consecuencias tiene o podrá tener. Según Zygmunt Bauman, lo unico que ha creado el mundo moderno es un increíble sistema de producción de residuos humanos (no recursos, sino residuos), además de los tecnológicos, a través del incremento en la velocidad de obsolescencia de los productos y sus sistemas

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buy new carproductivos. Sin tratarse de un problema de medio ambiente, el autor del libro reflexiona sobre el efecto de la sociedad de consumo, el progreso económico y la búsqueda de la satisfacción total de las necesidades cada vez más complejas del hombre. Esto puede verse, según dice el autor, en la cantidad de excluidos, marginados, sociedades casi olvidadas por la desocupación, el bienestar personal y la mala distribución de la justicia y la riqueza. Mientras determinadas regiones del mundo crecen en tecnología, capacidad y consumo, otras (la gran mayoría) están destinadas a cumplir el rol de “pensiones”, donde los desperdicios y desechos humanos son absorbidos para no estorbar. En el mundo se habla mucho de la superpoblación, y lamentablemente se le dan soluciones de corto plazo, donde se busca tapar agujeros; pero a medida que la era moderna avanza, este problema a nivel mundial va destapándose, ya que se han ido ocupando todas las regiones “aptas” para su ocupación de desperdicios humanos. A esta altura, es interesante plantearse, como lo

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hace Zygmunt Bauman, ¿por qué deben buscarse soluciones locales a problemas creados globalmente?, ¿por qué algunas poblaciones deben hacerse responsables de los efectos causados por civilizaciones “más desarrolladas”? Cuando se trata de vidas desperdiciadas, o desperdicios humanos, se hace referencia a todas aquellas personas (civilizaciones completas a veces) que no tienen a su alcance ningún medio para sobrevivir, y son tratados como miserias. Finalmente, Zygmunt Bauman, plantea el problema como una catástrofe de proporción mundial, aunque no sé si estar de acuerdo con él, sí creo que es necesario tomar conciencia de la magnitud de este problema, ya que como se presenta en este libro, esa situación se comienza a hacer notar a partir del momento en que no existen más lugares donde puedan emigrar o pedir asilo estos “desechos”. Por eso el libro me parece muy bueno, presenta una invitación a pensar qué mundo queremos para nuestros hijos, los suyos y los hijos de sus hijos. Es un libro impactante, con muy buenos fundamentos. No se trata de un libro que plantea ideologías, sino que plantea un problema real, al cual deberá buscarse una solución efectiva en forma definitiva y rápida, sino no ¿qué dignidad quedara para aquellos que sí logramos sobrevivir, pero a costa de otros?

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About the Author

http://opiniondelibros.blogspot.com

Plastic surgery & NLP life coaching by Damian Cranny October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Blogs.
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I switched on the television the other night and caught a brilliant program called, Say No To The Knife and managed to a couple of archive programmes as well. The format is quite simple. A member of the public who is desperate to have plastic surgery works for 4 weeks with a psychologist who uses coaching and an image consultant.

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 The individuals on the programme all have a part of their body that they detest and want to change. For some it’s their nose, some it’s their wrinkles, some it’s their body fat and some it’s their breasts. Each and every one of them has fixated upon a part of their body and believe that if they have the surgery their lives will be better. Throughout the weeks by having the life coaching they discover that their true confidence and beauty comes from within. Sounds corny but the fact is that it is true. The great part of the programme is seeing people who at the start hate themselves and they way they look begin to transform into people who love themselves for who they are. They discover abundances of self confidence without choosing the surgery.

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Yes the surgery will change their features but it won’t change how they are inside. It is sad that in today’s image pressured culture so many people are made to feel ugly by industries that claim to want to make us feel and look beautiful.

NLP life coaching is fantastic for helping people to discover their true inner beauty and potential. With life coaching people are able to regain control of their life instead of comfort eating and hating themselves. It is possible to remove all of the pressures of being a ‘perfect beauty’ that is created by industries to sell products to us. Life is for living and we all have an abundance of skills to help us achieve that. The key is using life coaching to unlock that potential and start living the lives we want. Once you have real inner confidence with your self and your looks it escalates in other areas of your life.

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At our retreat no matter what your issues are you can transform your life. Our 4 day retreat will provide you with all the help, guidance and tools to transform the way you look and feel about yourself without the need for plastic surgery. Say no to the knife and yes to a better and healthier life. To find out more visit our website at http://www.renaissanceretreat.com and find out how NLP life coaching can help you.

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Standards of beauty are arbitrary. Body shame exists only to the extent that our physiques don’t match our own beliefs about how we should look. Martha Beck

Sign up for our free articles on the contact page.

Best wishes

Damian

About the Author

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Damian is a professional NLP life coach and recently used his NLP life coaching skills to manage his leukaemia and bone marrow transplant.

Old Statue Of Liberty De’ Blind Cried Loud by Jacqueline Amos October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Awards.
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 Oh the sweet smell of liberty, the indoctrination of a free mind, I have just seen a beautiful thing, the off spring of justice, has taken the blinders of her eyes, oh but yet the tears of her eyes that cried blood, conscious of the hidden lies, oh but when the bells ring from above, liberty began to cry a sour tear, I have been blind in the solid tomb, I cry the tears, a planted doom, and the freedom bells ring from the rainbow of the skies; Within blood in my eyes. Tears that stream rivers, Pain that reflects inferno’s My last mission upon the universe. Burning buildings, Screams of pain. Within these walls, I declare, No doors to hide, no glory to sing. The mission has finally reach and end. Prayers screamed in unisons, of the flying images that links from a place nowhere to be known.

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Until that wind that blew it away, the birth of a powerful thing, Against a gold, gold sky, the rainbow of de’ almighty cried out loud, Oh you big tormented stone, that lye upon the skies I sow, forever shall my words be spoke, without righteousness freedom shall be no more. A straight line that I walk, upon the glorious warriors Of righteous soul, exquisite in a soft tone, that steals from my children’s; Sanctuary of calm, sensitivity of the proclamation of psalms, A black pearl that rise upon the clouds, the virgin stone that creates life, Oh the spirit has risen upon the sea, The cries of the warriors, who wear the blood of my son.

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Look upward upon the skies, upward the skies of free. Oh beautiful shallot of form, the black pearl that creates life, Upon the indigenous fight, the pearl that shines upon the night, The pearl of my chosen night, the soul that eats from the pearl of life, oh the righteous virtues of my native life, liberty the black ebony pearl, the liberty of my house, Psalm off the gracious sky.

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Until that wind that blew it away, the birth of a powerful thing, Against a gold, gold sky, the rainbow of de’ almighty cried out loud, Oh you big tormented stone, that lye upon the skies I sow, forever shall my words be spoke, without righteousness freedom shall be no more; A straight line that I walk, upon the glorious warriors

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 Of righteous soul, exquisite in a soft tone, that steals from my children’s Sanctuary of calm, sensitivity of the proclamation of psalms, A black pearl that rise upon the clouds, the virgin stone that creates life, Oh the spirit has risen upon the sea, The cries of the warriors, who wear the blood of my son,

Look upward upon the skies, upward the skies of free. Oh beautiful shallot of form, the black pearl that creates life, Upon the indigenous fight, the pearl that shines upon the night; The pearl of my chosen night, the soul that eats from the pearl of life, oh the righteous virtues of my native life, liberty the black ebony pearl, the liberty of my house, Psalm off the gracious sky.

Freedom yearns, for the resurrection of man, Pyramids of the universal life; Treasures that reflect truth. I women must stay strong. Spirits created by the ocean, rebirth, Affirming real things. No longer for us to decide.

About the Author

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Jacqueline Amos takes you on a journey, Understanding the pro’s and Con’s of life, in this optimistic journey of confinement, suffering that links to the savior; who have given his life, oh yet man who lives by his own accords, to suffer is the retribution of the savior himself, through suffering comes enhancement, and enhancement brings character, and character results in faith, through Faith comes rewards, so who shall live upon this earth and

Why You Only Have A 30% Chance Of Getting Your Car Fixed Right The First Time by Theodore Olson October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Autos.
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While there are a number of factors why it’s difficult to get your car fixed right the first time, the primary reason is the skill of the mechanic doing the repair.

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According to studies, 70% of automotive technicians are not qualified to work on your car. This includes technicians from dealerships, local shops, and franchises.

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Over a decade ago, automotive manufacturers were predicting widespread shortages in “qualified” technicians. Now, given that 80% of the functions of the average car are controlled by electronics, qualified technicians are in even greater demand. This is evidenced by the numerous advertisements for master technicians which include a $1000 to $5000 sign-on bonus.

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 The local mechanic is obsolete. Today’s mechanics must be “technicians” in the true sense of the word. Technicians need an in-depth understanding of the advanced interactive theory of mechanical, electrical, and computer systems. Today’s cars are literally a network of computers on wheels.

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The true technicians are the guys who can navigate multiple systems of theory to diagnose what’s causing your car to intermittently stall at highway speeds in cold weather, on Route 66 every other Thursday morning, when it rains hard. Unfortunately, these guys are very rare.

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Automotive technology has advanced far beyond local mechanics, most of whom are still struggling with basic electronics and computer diagnoses (see the Acceleration of Price-Gouging @ www.repairtrust.com/articles.html).

The service industry has always lagged behind in adequate training. It has responded somewhat in recent years, but it’s too little too late. Training alone will not make up for the years of lost time, coupled with the technological advancements to come.

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This leaves you, the service customer, paying top dollar to have an amateur poke and prod your vehicle. Not only is your car unlikey to be fixed correctly, paying top wages for an amateur is a classic car repair scam!

About the Author

Theodore P. Olson (Ted) holds extensive certifications from Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, GM, and ASE. He is the author of eight books and numerous articles on the automotive service industry. Honest and Fair Auto Repair Cost Estimates

Why You Only Have A 30% Chance Of Getting Your Car Fixed Right The First Time by Theodore Olson October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Uncategorized.
add a comment

While there are a number of factors why it’s difficult to get your car fixed right the first time, the primary reason is the skill of the mechanic doing the repair.

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According to studies, 70% of automotive technicians are not qualified to work on your car. This includes technicians from dealerships, local shops, and franchises.

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Over a decade ago, automotive manufacturers were predicting widespread shortages in “qualified” technicians. Now, given that 80% of the functions of the average car are controlled by electronics, qualified technicians are in even greater demand. This is evidenced by the numerous advertisements for master technicians which include a $1000 to $5000 sign-on bonus.

The local mechanic is obsolete. Today’s mechanics must be “technicians” in the true sense of the word. Technicians need an in-depth understanding of the advanced interactive theory of mechanical, electrical, and computer systems. Today’s cars are literally a network of computers on wheels.

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The true technicians are the guys who can navigate multiple systems of theory to diagnose what’s causing your car to intermittently stall at highway speeds in cold weather, on Route 66 every other Thursday morning, when it rains hard. Unfortunately, these guys are very rare.

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Automotive technology has advanced far beyond local mechanics, most of whom are still struggling with basic electronics and computer diagnoses (see the Acceleration of Price-Gouging @ www.repairtrust.com/articles.html).

The service industry has always lagged behind in adequate training. It has responded somewhat in recent years, but it’s too little too late. Training alone will not make up for the years of lost time, coupled with the technological advancements to come.

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This leaves you, the service customer, paying top dollar to have an amateur poke and prod your vehicle. Not only is your car unlikey to be fixed correctly, paying top wages for an amateur is a classic car repair scam!

About the Author

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Theodore P. Olson (Ted) holds extensive certifications from Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, GM, and ASE. He is the author of eight books and numerous articles on the automotive service industry. Honest and Fair Auto Repair Cost Estimates

Super Web Secret to be a millionaire by Charles P. Goodman NYC USA October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Affiliate Programs.
2 comments

Dear Friend,

Do you want to earn a full time income working from home? Or maybe you just want to make some extra money in addition to your current income. In either case you’ve come to the right place!

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Imagine owning an automated online business that earns you money 24 hours a day – 7 days a week, without you even lifting a finger. You will earn money while you eat, sleep and have fun.

Sounds too good to be true? Well, it isn’t if you have the right tools and knowledge.

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It’s no secret that ordinary people are making thousands of dollars every month working from home, running simple websites that require almost no work or expenses.

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The internet offers the quickest and easiest way to make a fortune. If you have what people want to buy and know how to promote it to your customers, then you will succeed! Contrary to what most people believe, you don’t have to be a genius or have any special skills in order to make money on the internet. Anyone can make money online, including you!

Click Here!

http://fisher8768.lancer79.hop.clickbank.net

About the Author

Fellow entrepreneurs,Charles P Goodman , follow the following link and you are on your way to become a millionaire. Click Here! Dear Friend,

Do you want to earn a full time income working from home? Or maybe you just want to make some extra money in addition to your current income. In either case you’ve come to the right place!

Imagine owning an a

Hello world! October 14, 2006

Posted by car2offerte in Uncategorized.
1 comment so far

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